Los toros corren a gran velocidad.

How sanfermin.com measures the duration of the running of the bulls

In 2019 a person called us in the middle of a party because it depended on the duration of the confinement that a good amount of money was won in a bookmaker. In the conditions of the contest it was stated that the duration of the confinement published on our website would be taken as a reference. The problem was that the duration of the running of the bulls on TVE and that of sanfermin.com was different. With the duration of TVE that person earned money and with that of sanfermin.com another person earned it.

You will wonder how there can be different durations of the same confinement and that is why we are going to explain it.

Exact duration of lockdown

To begin with, since we regularly calculate the speed of the bulls for the statistics, we take into account the exact time and the correct distance. They are regular variables that must be calculated with the same criteria in order to be able to compare them with each other over time.

1-.Our measurement of the confinement in meters goes from the door of the corral of Santo Domingo, to the door of the bullpens of the square. We do not take into account the interior space of either of the two pens. That distance measured by the center of the street of the entire route and the center of the square, up to the gate of the corrals, is 875 meters. The measurements were made with a wheel odometer calibrated after the renovation of Calle Estafeta and it was revised with the renovation works of the alley.

The distance of the running of the bulls used by sanfermin.com is 875 meters

There are two segments where the bulls run alone, as is the beginning of Santo Domingo and, if there are no legs or reckless people, from the center of the plaza to the entrance to the bullpens. We consider everything lockdown. If a pastor has an incident in the plaza, he is injured in the running of the bulls; If a runner can’t open up in time upon reaching the plaza and keeps running, he’s in lockdown. That is the average that we take into account for speed averages, etc.

2-.And once we have the distance, let’s proceed to calculate the time to establish averages and speeds. We do not take as reference the sound of the starting rocket. Generally we correct one to two seconds, until the first bull’s horn or halter shows through the door of the Santo Domingo corrals. In the same way, we do not take into account the sound of the rocket that warns that the bulls are in the bullring. The running of the bulls does not end for sanfermin.com until the last member of the starting herd (either bull or halter) has entered the corrals. If a bull has to be picked up by the tail halters, that bull will mark the end of the running of the bulls. If one tame is delayed from the initial start, that halter marks the end of the race.

It is for these reasons that the times of the running of the bulls on sanfermin.com generally differ from those on TVE. If we did not do it this way, we would not be able to calculate the average speed of the herds as faithfully as possible.

An example of how it affects the average speed of the lockdown

In the confinement of the bulls of Puerto de San Lorenzo on July 7, 2019, it can be verified that the herd takes four seconds to leave since the clock starts. In addition, at the end of the race, we consider that another second is given away. The official broadcast time is 2.41. For sanfermin.com, it is 2.36, which is the actual time that the bulls were running. With that data, the running of the bulls was completed in 2 minutes and 36 seconds. Which is 156 seconds.

The formula for speed is distance divided by time, which in this case would be V=875 meters/156 seconds. This gives us 5,608 meters per second, which in kilometers per hour is 20.18. If we take the official TVE time as a reference, with five seconds without a race, it is 161 seconds, giving 5.434 meters per second and 19.56 kilometers per hour. We understand that this time is not real because it has five seconds in which the bulls were not on the course, offering incorrect figures to compare with other running of the bulls. We hope that is clear.

Calendar of the running of the bulls and Feria del Toro 2022

This afternoon, the bullfighting commission of the Casa de Misericordia in Pamplona presented the complete poster for the Sanfermin 2022 bull fair. The Bull Fair has a budget of 4.1 million euros, dividing the budget between 70% for the cache of the bullfighters and 30% for the ranches. On July 7th the centenary of the square will be commemorated and on the 14th the confinement of Antonio Ferrera with six Miuras will be confirmed.

We have also learned that the subscriptions for the fair will rise by around 4.7% due to the increase in costs after ten years of being frozen. The house has presented the bullfight on July 5 (8:00 p.m.), the bullfight on July 6 and has maintained the commitment to maintain the herds that were promised for the party that was suspended, although as sanfermin.com has been able to confirm, the herd The One who provided the halters for the running of the bulls will not repeat in Sanfermin 2022.

July 5th. Pincha.

For the novilleros Jorge Martínez, Isaac Fonseca and Álvaro Alarcón.

July 6th. The Capea.

For the rejoneadores Leonardo Hernández, Roberto Armendáriz and Guillermo Hermoso de Mendoza.

July 7th. Nunez del Cuvillo.

For the matadors Morante de la Puebla, Julián López “El Juli” and Andrés Roca Rey.

July 8. Fuente Ymbro

For the matadors Daniel Luque, José Garrido and Álvaro Lorenzo.

July 9th. José Escolar.

For the matadors José Adame, Rubén Pinar and Javier Cortés.

July 10th. The Palmosilla

For the matadors Rafael Rubio “Rafaelillo”, Manuel Escribano and Leo Valadez.

July 11. Bulls of Cebada Gago.

For the matadors Juan Leal, Román and Jesús Enrique Colombo.

12th of July. Jandilla.

For the matadors Diego Urdiales, Alejandro Talavante and Ginés Marín.

July 13. Victoriano del Río

For the matadors Miguel Ángel Perera, Paco Ureña and Andrés Roca Rey.

July 14. Miura bulls

For the matador Antonio Ferrera, with the outstanding Álvaro de la Calle and Jeremy Banti.

Renewal of subscriptions and morning bullfighting shows.

The subscription renewal will be at the box office of the Pamplona bullring from June 6 to 10 from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. and, on July 11, from 10:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. In addition, the subscription can be renewed on June 13 and 14 from 4:00 p.m. to 8:00 p.m. Remember that you must bring your DNI and the 2019 subscription. From June 14 at 8:00 p.m., the house will have those subscriptions that have not been renewed. The House has a bank account in Caja Rural to make the transfer two days before renewing and present the receipt at the time of entry.

On Saturday, July 9 and Sunday, July 10 at 11:00, two bullfighting shows will be held. On the 9th there will be a cutting contest with bulls on point and on the 10th a cattle ranching contest in the ring mode. The price of the cut contest and the ring contest will be 15 euros for adults and 5 for children under 12 years of age.

Cermin is the organization responsible for allocating box seats in the bullring for people with reduced mobility.

The price for the sections will be 12 euros. That of the running of the bulls for July 7, 8 euros for all ages. On July 9 and 10, admission will be 10 euros. On the 8th, 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th the price of the running of the bulls will be 6 euros stretched out, stands and broadside and 3 euros for children under 12 years of age.


Juan José Aquerreta frente a su cartel en la presentación en la Casa de Misericordia

A work by Juan José Aquerreta will announce the Bull Fair that will celebrate the centenary of the Pamplona bullring

The Pamplona-born artist Juan José Aquerreta is the author of the poster for the 2022 Bull Fair. It is a work composed of the reproduction of a charcoal drawing and an aerial image of the Bullring in 1923 by Gerardo Zaragüeta with reddened inks. Aquerreta is an artist at the Marlborough Gallery where you can consult his extensive curriculum and much of his work. In the presentation of the poster at the Casa de Misericordia Aquerreta pointed out that “the bullring is the connection between bulls and men that under the blood red color means the passion of a tremendous festival such as that of the bulls.”

The author, National Prize for Plastic Arts in 2001 and Prince of Viana Prize for Culture in 2003, has highlighted that the work reflects compassion and respect among those who participate in the festival. “One of the characters is wounded and the other helps him. The work is a psychological expression of the human relationship that is a symbol of Sanfermin. The saint is a martyr who offers his life for the city, evidencing his relationship with God and with the city. The bullring is a wonderful building, it is a representation of the relationship between bulls and men, and blood communicates between bulls and human beings.” The author did not want to reveal the identity of the models used for the work, which he has, and which correspond to two cyclist brothers.

Rueda de prensa de presentación del cartel con una veinte de periodistas atentos a la presentación del cartel. En la imagen, de izquierda a derecha: el presidente de la comisión taurina de la Casa de Misericorida, José María Marco García Mina; el alcalde de Pamplona, Enrique Maya; Juan José Aquerreta y el vocal de la junta de gobierno de la Casa de Misericordia, Miguel Ángel Alonso del Val.
On the photo, from left to right, the poresident of Bull Deputy from the House of Mercy, José María Marco García Mina; the Pamplona Mayor, Enrique Maya; Juan José Aquerreta (the author) and the member of the governing board of the House of Mercy, Miguel Ángel Alonso del Val.

The centenary poster

The member of the governing board of the Casa de Misericordia, Miguel Ángel Alonso del Val, director of the School of Architecture of the University of Navarra, has pointed out regarding the photo of the bullring that “It is an image from 1922 before to the remodeling of the square. The framing offers us a vision of the Pamplona basin, not only of the city, and reminds us of the amphitheater character of the construction, recalling the Roman reminiscences of the place”.

In defense of the bull in San Fermín

The mayor of Pamplona, ??Enrique Maya, pointed out that the painter is a resident of Estafeta street, like him, and recalled the importance of the fighting bull in Pamplona’s festivities. “Without the bull there would be no Sanfermin. The festivals would be so different that I can’t even imagine them. Acts such as the section, the mulillas or the running of the bulls determine the program of each day and generate unique atmospheres.” As president of the Casa de Misericordia and mayor he vindicated the presence of the bull in San Fermín. He, in turn, recalled that it has been two very hard years for the institution because the Bull Fair turns its profits on the attention of the residents of the Casa de Misericordia, a unique milestone in the world.

Regarding the celebration of the Sanfermin 2022 festivities, Maya said that “There is no going back. There will be no official announcement, the program will be presented step by step as it has always been done.”

Bull Fair poster from 2022.

Juan Carlos Unzué will launch the Txupinazo de Sanfermin 2022

The Pamplona City Council has announced that Juan Carlos Unzué will launch the Chupinazo for the upcoming Sanfermin festivities. This news means one more step in the arguments that make us think that next July our beloved party will be celebrated. Juan Carlos Unzué is a former soccer player and former coach and, as the Pamplona City Council indicates in a press release, “since he made it public in 2020 that he suffered from ALS, he has become a benchmark in the fight against this disease, leading campaigns, talks, documentaries and books in which he recounts in the first person his coexistence with this ailment”.

When Enrique Maya communicated the decision, he pointed out that “with this appointment, Pamplona joins the visibility of this disease, the support for those who suffer from it and their families and the way in which Juan Carlos Unzué is facing ALS as a lesson of life, in addition to also recognizing the professional career of one of the best Navarrese football goalkeepers.”

According to the data provided by the Pamplona City Council, Juan Carlos Unzué Labiano (Orkoien, 1967) accumulated more than 300 games in the First Division. He made his debut in goal for Osasuna in the First Division in the 1986-1987 season. It was the start of a professional career that also led him to play for FC Barcelona, ??Sevilla FC, CD Tenerife and Real Oviedo. As a footballer, he has a European Cup Winners’ Cup and a Copa del Rey to his name, won with FC Barcelona in 1989 and 1990, respectively.

Already on the bench, he trained CD Numancia and Racing de Santander. Between 2013 and 2017 he formed a tandem with Luis Enrique and was second coach with him at RC Celta de Vigo and FC Barcelona, ??achieving a Champions League, two Leagues, three Copas del Rey, a Club World Cup or a European Super Cup with the Blaugrana . After that stage, already as head coach, he managed RC Celta de Vigo and Girona FC.

Work is being done on the celebration of Sanfermin 2022

In the same statement, the Pamplona City Council has transmitted that “it continues to work on the celebration of Sanfermines convinced that, in view of the current evolution of the health situation, it will be possible to celebrate the festivities, after two years of suspension.”  There have been people who, reading this sentence in an official statement, have burst into tears.

Remember that if you dare to come to Pamplona in 2022, living the txupinazo among the crowd is a highly recommended but somewhat powerful experience: from 11.00 or so the crowding is terrible and you cannot move a finger. It’s infernally hot, whatever the weather: from the mass rises a mist mixed with sweat, champagne and various liquids that fall on you from everywhere (there are those who even make some really disgusting mixtures: ketchup, cola cao, mustard, flour, shaving foam, etc.).

From the balconies they throw buckets of water at people to relieve suffocation. The pushes spread through the crowd like a wave. In some of these, large pieces of human mess go to the ground, and there is a general commotion not to trample on them. One last. After being in the square, people seem to come out of an old washing machine. Every year the medical services treat many bruised, fainted and suffocated, but usually there are no serious injuries.

Keep reading our tips to attend the Chupinazo de Sanfermin 2022.



Captura de la web de Kiliki Club donde se lee el nombre y se puede ver a dos kilikis, Patata y Caravinagre. Es una imagen de las estatuillas de goma que venden por la calle, no de los originales, y se aprecian un poco "raros"

The “Kiliki” NFTs arrive at Sanfermin with the first digital peña in history

The Kiliki are going to be the first San Fermin NFTs in history covered by the Kiliki Club, the first digital San Fermin club ever created. Did you find out something? If not, we try again. The first San Fermín digital peña known as the Kiliki Club has been born. From this platform they will publicize and market NFTs that will be called Kilikis. NFTs (Non-Fungible Tokens) are a type of unique cryptocurrencies used to represent real physical or digital assets. In the case of Kiliki Club, a series of 10,000 different Kilikis can be purchased, generated algorithmically and hosted on the blockchain. According to the people of Kiliki Club “Each Kiliki NFT is a unique collector’s item that will represent belonging to Kiliki Club.”

The initiative arose on January 1 of this year when Pablo Garbayo, Borja Urteaga, Pablo Régulo and Javier Senosiain meet after the censored New Year’s Eve to have an aperitif and, suddenly, one of them mentions that it is the first day of the staircase of 2022. It is then when one of them occurs to him that it is time to create a community of people, who regardless of the circumstances want to be part of a community that represents those people who identify with the joy of the party more universal (as they tell it on their website). “After a few beers, sangrias, patxaranes and San Fermin songs, Kiliki Club was born, the first `Digital Club’ in the history of the San Fermines”, they say without shame in the official history of their initiative.

Since February 2, registration is open to receive information on NFTs on the Kiliki Club website

They express the intention to create a community and teach everyone how to operate within the world of blockchain

The origin of this initiative is cooked in the middle of the Sanfermin ladder, but its destiny is to reach 10,000 members, as its founders say, “We will ensure that our users obtain their NFTs through training for the community. The collection will be 10,000 NFTs. This means that there will be a maximum of 10,000 members.”

On July 7, 2022, the NFTs will be delivered

When they go on sale, the NFTs can be purchased through the Metamask wallet, which is a payment method for blockchain applications. They are still in the process of selecting the blockchain and encourage expert followers to pass on their suggestions. It is expected that on July 7, the day of San Fermín, the NFTs will be delivered to those who have purchased them. Once the NFTs have been acquired, they can be sold on the secondary market, although their function is to certify the membership of the Peña Digital Kiliki and give the right to decide the NGOs with which the Peña will collaborate, decide on the banner for each year and access events where you can meet other members.

We tell you this because the story is very funny, because we want them to give us an NFT and because this story is very Pamplona. I’m sure it’s going very well.

Online reservations trust that Sanfermin 2022 will be held

Balcony rental reservations to see the 2022 Sanfermin running of the bulls and apartment reservations for next July show that those who make them trust that the festivities will be held in 144 days . The apartments for rent available for the month of July in Pamplona through the Airbnb platform are diminishing rapidly as if it were certain that Sanfermin 2022 will be celebrated. The offer is scarce for those dates and if we look at the first ten «superhosts» of Airbnb in the old town, all have reserved the dates that would correspond to the Sanfermin 2022 festivities. What remains now are apartments recently uploaded to the platform, with a higher price or far from the city center.

We wanted to interpret that those who prepare their trip with time trust that the next Sanfermines in 2022 will be celebrated and that is why these reservations are being made. According to the clauses of the contract of the rental platform, if the party is suspended, in most cases, all the money is returned or a minimum management fee is generally withheld. On Airbnb and other similar platforms, you can clearly see by moving to the July dates that from the 5th to the 14th the dates already reserved by other clients in Pamplona predominate. They are the dates of Sanfermin.

According to data from the tourist platform Sanfermin by Locals , which has been renting out balconies for the running of the bulls through Sanfermin.com for twelve years , reservations to see the running of the bulls are arriving as if it were a normal year on these dates. In January and February there have been reservations from countries that have a habit of anticipating and securing places because they come from farther away; In March it is common for companies that celebrate the incentives taking advantage of Sanfermin and that rent balconies for the Sanfermin running of the bulls to reserve balconies to watch the running of the bulls. After Easter, the reservations of national travelers who decide later take place, although the best sites are usually no longer available.

Alquiler de balcones en el encierro de Sanfermines. A balcony to watch the running of the bulls 2017La Estafeta desde un balcón. alzugaray.es

Rental of balconies for the running of the bulls in good gear and the running of the bulls as a Valentine’s gift

Mikel Ollo, from Sanfermin by Locals, tells us that the reservation of balconies for the Sanfermin 2022 running of the bulls is going on as if it were a normal year. « We cannot guarantee that Sanfermin can be celebrated. It will depend on health criteria, but given the current situation there are those who decide to go ahead because there is a great desire to celebrate San Fermín again. There is a nuance in the reservations, such as the fact that people who attended in 2019 are taking part in some of the reservations again in figures above the average,” says Ollo.

This sector has had a very bad time with the pandemic and hopes to recover with the return of the parties and confinements. “It has been a very hard time for tour guides. Going back to normality is what we want in the guild. This week I have felt that tingling again with a reservation from a boy from Madrid who has given his girlfriend a reservation for Valentine’s Day for the running of the bulls on July 7 “, says Mikel Ollo. (Smells like a request. Editorial note)

Most of the reservations are made online from specialized platforms such as Sanfermin.com and others. The conditions of service change and it is good to make sure, but those carried out with regulated tour guides such as Mikel Ollo, allow favorable conditions for the user in case of cancellation.

Se puede ver a Mikel Ollo preparándose una copa de champán en un balcón donde se adivina que está muy cerca del balcón donde se lanza el chupinazo de San FerminMikel Ollo, from Sanfermin by Locals on one of the balconies that is rented for the Sanfermin Chupinazo.

Un puerta de madera dibujada con el trazo característico de Kukuxumusu con un dintel del piedra y una oared de ladrillos. En la puerta, sobre la ventanuca cerrada, se pueden leer tres sietes.

When the Ministry of Time resurrected Hemingway

The reference in the series El Ministerio del Tiempo to the Sanfermin festivities in 2016 was as curious as it was original. Due to the plot of the series we could see Ernest Hemingway in 1931 , Later, this moment allowed a reference to the series in the animations that Kukuxumusu performs for TVE in Sanfermin . Here’s the full story and in this link you can see all Kukuxumusu animations for the Sanfermin programs on Spanish television.

As explained by TVE in the website of the series “El Ministerio del Tiempo “is a Autonomous and secret governmental institution that depends directly on the Presidency of the Government. Only kings, presidents and an exclusive number of people know about it. The passage to other times is carried out through gates guarded by the Ministry Patrols. Its objective : detect and prevent any intruder from the past from reaching our present -or vice versa- in order to use History for their benefit. For this, the Patrols will have to travel to the past and prevent them from achieving it. They are superheroes, but ordinary people exposed to unusual situations. Julián, a modern-day SAMUR nurse, Amelia Folch, the first female university student in Barcelona in 1880 (an image of modern Spain) and Alonso de Entrerríos, a soldier from the Third of Flanders (example of the value and patriotic sacrifice of our armies). All Spain together for a common goal. His mission: to fight so that the past does not change, which would mean that our present is not what it is. To do this, they will have to fight with merchants and organizations that want to manipulate it for their benefit or that of foreign powers. The Ministry is the last barrier so that, with its greatness and its sorrows, our History is what it is. “

With this excuse they live many adventures and in the chapter “The farewell to Ortigosa”, a group of officials decides to travel to Sanfermin in 1931 for a party. The series picks up the moments in the tunnels after the party and Ernest Hemingway surprisingly slips in a little past laps.

In line with this story, for Sanfermin 2017, Kukuxumusu customized one of the animations for the Sanfermines program of La 1 on RTVE, emulating this turn proposed by the series. In the animation some characters from a different era appear in a confinement by mistake. The door, with the legend 777, guessed the tragedy.


Se puede ver la parte

A Chesterfield campaign looks at the “Chupinazo”

A fan passes us this pack of Chesterfield tobacco bought in a tobacconist this morning in Pamplona. As you can see, it includes an allegorical message to the «Chupinazo» and the promotional message «With CH de Chesterfield». This campaign, which we understand uses words with the letter “CH” in different places, has chosen the word Chupinazo at least for Pamplona. This tribute to Sanfermin Fiesta maintains the corporate colors of this brand, which is the third best-selling in the country.

The word Chupinazo includes the characteristic typeface of the Chesterfield trademark, which is different from the typeface with the same name. The brand is owned by Philip Morris and markets both pack and rolling tobacco under the name “Chesterfield Roll Your Ow”. We do not know if the same campaign has been carried out in the rolling support.

Since 2005, advertising, promotion and sponsorship of tobacco products are generally prohibited in Spain, but it does not limit the promotion on the pack itself if it includes the mandatory messages.

Imagen de una Cajetilla de tabaco de Chesterfield que incluye la palabra Chupinazo.
Imagen de una Cajetilla de tabaco de Chesterfield que incluye la palabra Chupinazo.
Se ve a Luis Azanza charlando animadamente con tres fotógrafos más entre los que se identifica a Javier Sesma de Diario de Navarra. Es una charla en la inauguración de la exposición Universo Sf de julio de 2019.

Photographer Luis Azanza leaves us

Luis Azanza, the magnificent photographer with the cap, has died in Pamplona at night. The loss of him leaves us afflicted with him because we have shared many good San Fermin moments with him and with his people and we had a lot of affection for him and his work. His photographs gave meaning to the first Sanfermin bull runs and festivals that this website covered. He accompanied us with the images of him for a few essential years. We have a magnificent legacy of photographs from San Fermin that will allow us to remember it forever. Rest in peace.

Since 2008 Luis Azanza was the founder of Aloa Comunicación and expanded his knowledge to other techniques such as video and animation, successfully developing works for different companies and initiatives. As a current affairs photographer, his work for El País newspaper was significant, where he also made portraits that have left their mark, such as those made for Karmentxu Marín’s articles.

SF universe

Universo SF was an exhibition that in July 2019 perfectly and with great pleasure summarized Luis Azanza’s vision of the party. This work belongs to his photographic essays, among which were also up to six outstanding works. In this video from amplonatelevision.es we can take a look back at that moment and listen to Luis’ own words.

We have been able to see Luis Azanza’s Sanfermin photographs in the main capitals of the country because he had a special ability to collect those moments that confinement offers you if you know where to look. Beyond the confinement, Luis’s work has become immense in actuality and artistic work, such as the exhibition «Minimal Instances» that was held at the Contraluz Gallery of the Agrupación Fotográfica y Cinematográfica de Navarra in 2009.

We recover these two images to remember: in the first, one of the few without a cap, corresponds to a course taught by Jean Dieuzaide at the Navarra Photographic and Cinematographic Group in 1985 where we can see him together with Koldo Chamorro, Mikel Goñi, Juan Ignacio Delgado and others.

Imagen de un grupo de fotógrafos junto a Jean Dieuzaide que impartió un curso sobre fotografía de reportaje en pamplona en 1985. podemos ver a Mikel Goñi, Koldo Chamorro y Juan Ignacio Delgado, entre otros.

The second image helps us to recover a moment of those typical of a photographer in San Fermín. We see Luis Azanza dodging the bull of fire with the characteristic posture of reserving the chamber of sparks.

Luis Azanza huye cámara en mano de un espectacular toro de fuego en plenos sanfermines
Photo by MIkel Lasa

The running of the bulls and Luis Azanza

The confinement had few secrets for Luis Azanza but he worked with the pressure of having to comply with the pages of El País every day. His choice of the opportune moments and the mastery of the technique made him a reference in the photography of the confinement forever. We have rescued a selection of images published on sanfermin.com that make this statement clear.

Un toro engancha de la camiseta a una corredora en el encierro de sanfermin del 12 de julio de 2010.
Luis Azanza. July 12, 2010. Victoriano del Río.
Toro enfilando la curva de la estafeta y un mozo a cuatro patas sobre el suelo anuncia una posible tragedia
Luis Azanza. July 11, 2010. Toros de Miura..
Varios mozos caen sobre un toro que había perdido las manos en Estafeta.
Luis Azanza. Cebada gago. 9 de julio de 2012.

Biography of Luis Azanza
AFCN text.

Luis Azanza, entered the world of photography at the age of 16 in a self-taught way, looking for a form of expression that reflected the aesthetic and social transformation that the country was experiencing. Already in the 1980s he began working as a photojournalist in national and regional media, such as El Día, Diario 16, Cambio 16, El País, Diario Vasco, Deia, etc. He has also published in foreign newspapers and magazines such as Le monde and Público (Lisbon).

An independent profession that extends to the present day and that has opened up to corporate, industrial, advertising and illustration photography. At the same time, he has been developing personal work that allows him greater creative freedom and experimenting with different techniques, some that go back to the origins of photography as pinhole photography. The objective is to continue exploring the complexity of the image, without forgetting that it is a language and that as such, it has a grammar that must be known in order to break it.

His works have been exhibited in New Generation Contrasts (150th Anniversary of the otography, 1988); 11 Graphic reporters (New Image Gallery, 1990); Fotopress (1991); La Cubana in festivals (Castillo de Olite, 1992); 16 Years of Photojournalism (Círculo de Bellas Artes, 1993); International Journalistic Contest San Fermín 1992 (Exhibition 1994); 25 years of Iruña (1995); 25 years

Imagen de los datos obtenidos en el estudio para estudiar las variables de comportamiento que genera el encierro

The US Academy of Sciences publishes a study based on the confinement

“The Sanfermin running of the bulls in Pamplona could help scientists prepare for a catastrophe”, thus concludes a study of the behavior of crowds referred to by this mass media of great global impact on scientific dissemination. To obtain data, they came to Pamplona for the 2019 bull runs and, according to the article, they installed a couple of cameras suspended over the streets of Pamplona to have a bird’s eye view of the event. They recorded two consecutive day runs to capture the speed and direction of each runner, as well as the density of the crowd.

Article in the journal Science that refers to a study that takes as a reference the running of the bulls in Pamplona
Article in the journal Science that refers to a study that takes as a reference the running of the bulls in Pamplona

The study has been published, reviewed, and accepted by the editorial board of the American Academy of Sciences. The authors are:

  • Daniel R. Parisi and Alan G. Sartorio, both from the Center for Physical, Biological and Social Agents of the Technological Institute of Buenos Aires (ITBA) and the National Council for Scientific and Technical Research of Buenos Aires;
  • Joaquín R. Colonnello, from the Department of Computer Engineering of the Technological Institute of Buenos Aires;
  • Luis A. Pugnaloni, from the Department of Physics, Faculty of Exact and Natural Sciences, National University of La Pampa, National Council for Scientific and Technical Research of Santa Rosa, (Argentina);
  • Ángel Garcimartín from the Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics of the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Navarra.
  • Iker Zuriguel, from the Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, from the Faculty of Sciences of the University of Navarra.

First contradictory and surprising results

The cameras show a group of people jogging slowly, spaced through the streets. When the bulls arrive, a large group of runners speed past the camera, right in front of the animals. People run to the side when the bulls catch up with them. Unexpectedly, the data revealed that the speed of the corridors increased with the density of the crowd, up to a point, which is the opposite of what researchers have typically found when studying the flow of people or traffic: typically, People slow down when crowds are thicker.

And the explanation given by the authors is that the results may be due to the desire of the runners to change speed during different parts of the event. As noted in Science Parisi:

“In a crowded metro station, for example, everyone wants to walk at a normal and constant pace; adding more people only slows everyone down. But in the streets of Pamplona, ??runners wait for the bulls, run for a while as they pass and then come back at a slow speed, creating a wave of density and speed around the animals. “

According to an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, “Once the crowd increased to approximately one or two people per square meter, the maximum speed of the runners decreased dramatically, often because people it started crashing and falling. Once the crowd surpassed two people per square meter, virtually no one was able to sustain speeds greater than a light jog (about 2 meters / second). ” With this data, “Understanding precisely the speed limits imposed by overcrowding could help researchers build better models of pedestrian movement and improve evacuations in the event of fires and other emergencies,” says Parisi.

According to Science magazine in the article, the running of the bulls in Pamplona has been a unique laboratory experiment. Where else can scientists know exactly when and where people will flee for their lives? Now a study of the event reveals exactly how busy a street can get before people start tripping while sprinting at top speed.

Models to help

Based on this data obtained by Parisi and his team, the findings could help researchers model better ways to help people escape building fires and other catastrophes. According to Parisi: “The confinement is real enough to offer a rare insight into how humans behave when trying to escape danger.”